How to Celebrate “Whan That Aprille Day” (2017)

A guest posting by COURTNEY RYDEL

Cover of the Whan That Aprille Day event program at Washington College
Cover the program for “Whan That Aprille Day” celebrations last year at Washington College. Program designed by Olivia Serio (President of the Poetry Club, Washington College, class of 2017).

“Whan that Aprille Day” (the annual celebration of old, dead, and undead tongues) is rapidly approaching! Enjoy this posting by Prof. Courtney Rydel (Washington College) on ways to celebrate this occasion. – Global Chaucers co-directors

Coming at the beginning of April, National Poetry Month in the United States, “Whan That Aprille Day” is a holiday begun by the @LeVostreGC persona behind “Geoffrey Chaucer Hath a Blog” and “Chaucer Doth Tweet” in 2014. @LeVostreGC proposed medievalists unite in our efforts to celebrate “the beauty and great loveliness of studying the words of the past. Our mission is to bring to mind the importance of supporting the scholarship and labor that brings these words to us…and the teaching of these…languages. For without all of this, the past would have no words for us” [read the full 2017 iteration of this open call at the medieval studies blog In The Middle].

In spring 2016, I curated an event on Multilingual Chaucer, gathering students and faculty from across Washington College, the small liberal arts college in Maryland where I teach.  Since then, I’ve participated in another large-scale Chaucer project that was directed towards the larger community, #MedievalBirds with ornithologist Jennie Carr, work on which is still ongoing. Currently I am planning a major Chaucerian event for spring 2018, with guest speaker Kim Zarins, that will involve collaboration with the Education department and local high school teachers.

Based on these experiences, I would like to offer some suggestions for other medievalists looking to create exciting events to celebrate “Whan That Aprille Day” on their campus.   Although the event originated with celebrating Chaucer, that context should not be limiting. “Whan That Aprille Day” has the goal of celebrating the “beauty and great loveliness” in all languages.  Any language, literature, or poetry is welcome!  In this contemporary moment when the NEA and NEH are threatened, we need to come together as humanists and poetry lovers.  The more that medievalists connect with scholars of modern languages and across disciplines, and with our larger community, the stronger we will be.

  • Celebrate the gifts and skills of your students and faculty, and show them how they connect to Chaucer. At Washington College we hosted a reading of “Multilingual Chaucer,” which included students and faculty reading poetry in languages including Korean, Mandarin Chinese, Latin, Spanish, French, Russian, German, Hindi, Old English, and Middle English.  Some readers read their favorite poems in other languages, and some read Chaucer or Chaucer translations.  The mixture of languages and diverse poems brought alive how “The Father of English Poetry” inhabited a multilingual space, and allowed us to hear the many languages of our polyglot, increasingly international campus.
  • If you’re going global, check out the fantastic Global Chaucers online archive, created by Jonathan Hsy and Candace Barrington. This resource for post-1945 global non-Anglophone translations of Chaucer offers sample texts, blog posts and scholarship on Chaucer in modern contexts, and reflections on his impact in the contemporary landscape.
  • Look to interdisciplinary and collaborative research. My biologist colleague Jennie Carr and I undertook a project on #MedievalBirds in fall 2016, in which we combined her expertise on ornithology with my research to create an interactive downtown gallery exhibit on Chaucer’s Parliament of Fowls.  We involved students in creating a physical tree that branched onto the ceiling, showing how Chaucer’s categories of birds overlapped with evolutionary development, and in creating videos of students reciting passages from the Parliament of Fowls with present-day English translations in closed captioning.
  • Think about going beyond your college into the community. For Spring 2018, Washington College is planning an event that brings together high school teachers with our community to think about Chaucer in relation to the brilliant YA lit retelling of the Canterbury Tales by Kim Zarins, Sometimes We Tell the Truth. This event will give us an opportunity to bring together our LGBTQIA student groups as well as our secondary ed community with lovers of poetry and medieval studies.  Kim has graciously agreed to come and do a reading and craft talk, and the Education department is collaborating with us on a workshop with high school teachers to help them craft more in-depth lesson plans and relate Chaucer to contemporary issues.
  • Include other medievalists, faculty, and even emeritus faculty with a love of Chaucer! Our beloved emeritus faculty Bennett Lamond, who taught Chaucer for decades at Washington College starting back in 1965, read at our Multilingual Chaucer event.  He gave a hilarious, spirited reading of “To Rosamunde,” likening it to the Rolling Stones song “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction.”
  • Get students involved in their own retellings and rewritings of Chaucer. David Wallace’s undergraduate Chaucer course at the University of Pennsylvania in spring 2014 held an event in which students debuted both their own readings of Chaucer in the original Middle English as well as inspired, irreverent translations into present-day English.
  • Direct your event to increase opportunities for outreach on your campus. Are there other departments or programs with which you want to collaborate?  How can Chaucer connect to other time periods and topics?  Maybe you want to celebrate Chaucer’s influence on later art and media with your Media Studies or Art History departments.  Perhaps you want to work with your Gender Studies department on an event that looks at gender roles in Chaucer, or with Comparative Literature or Modern Languages scholars on an event that highlights translation.
  • Advertise! We had co-sponsors who also helped to publicize the event, including the Global Education Office, Department of English, Department of Modern Languages, Rose O’Neill Literary House, Poetry Club, and Sigma Tau Delta (English Honor Society).  Their efforts, along with our posters, tweets, and announcements, ensured a good turnout for the event.
  • Use social media for collaboration, connections and archiving. This international holiday was created and promoted through social media, so it’s important to create records, post pictures and videos, and tweet, blog or Facebook with the hashtag #WhanThatAprilleDay17 (please note the spelling).

Of course, all of these reflections come from the perspective of a medievalist working in English, who teaches Chaucer. Although “Whan That Aprille Day” started from a Chaucer parody account and remains Middle English heavy, its goal is wide and universal, and it offers possibilities for global and multilingual exchange, just as Chaucer himself makes in his poetry.  In the words of @LeVostreGC, “we hope that the connections, affinities, and joys of this made-up linguistic holiday will widely overflow their initial medieval English context.”

WATD Washington College event group photo
Readers pose for a group photo after the “Whan That Aprille Day” event at the Rose O’Neill Literary House, Washington College (2016).

Global Chaucer and Digital Humanities: Whither and Why?

On 2 and 3 February 2017, Global Chaucers’ ambassadors, Jonathan Hsy and Candace Barrington, traveled to the University of Virginia in order to speak to the Scholars’ Lab and the Medieval/Renaissance Colloquium about “Digital Hospitality” on Thursday afternoon, and to lead a roundtable on “Linguistic and Cultural Hospitality” with the Medieval/Renaissance Colloquium on Friday morning. In addition to the two events’ lively Q&As, we enjoyed ample opportunities to enjoy rich conversations with UVa faculty and graduate students before and after the scheduled sessions. Their probing questions and thoughtful suggestions helped us think about some of the next steps available to Global Chaucers.  All in all, the two days became less about what we shared with our UVa colleagues and more about the unusual luxury of measuring Global Chaucers’ development thus far and assessing the directions it could take in the future.

When we started this blog in September 2012, we didn’t really know what direction our fledgling project would take.  We were uncertain about what sort of global Chaucers were out there—and we certainly didn’t know how we could respond to what we did find. And though we had a website with a list of the translations and appropriations we had tracked down, it wasn’t entirely clear to us that we had a Digital Humanities project.

While we still aren’t certain the directions Global Chaucers will take, we now realize we have a viable DH project. Beyond the ongoing blog reports and the initial catalog of print texts, our website takes advantage of its ability to provide links to graphic novels, poetic performances, translators’ readings, spoken word and standup, and non-spoken languages (such as ASL). Our principles of digital hospitality and openness require, however, that along with embracing the inherent advantages of a digital archive we must also acknowledge and address the unanticipated challenges figured by two curious examples we’ve encountered.

In April 2015, we were pleased to discover a tweet by Sarah Bickley with her exciting, playful, and brilliant emoji translation of the first 20 lines of the General Prologue. We reached out to her, asking her permission to post on the site and added this screenshot with the link. This act of emoji translation—which went viral on twitter over the next week or so—invites such fascinating questions as “are these lines legible to anyone who isn’t already familiar with the GP?” In any case, our archiving of this tweet through a blog post demonstrates one downside to digital communication: its transience. Since the posting of this link, Sarah has since closed her twitter account, and the snapshot that now remains on the blog is a ghost of its former viral life.

On the first Whan That Aprille Day in 2014 (encouraged by the Chaucer Tweeter, LeVostreC), we posted the opening lines in twelve different languages. Some of the non-Roman scripts did not display well, so we took screenshots and posted them online. What we have discovered, though, is that the pleasure of encountering the text in an array of unfamiliar scripts and tongues is not accessible to all. One of our collaborators is blind, and she uses a screen reader to access online material; that device cannot read non-English texts or scripts. Moreover, image files without alt-text are completely inaccessible (there might as well be nothing there). The screen-grabbed emoji poem is likewise completely inaccessible for her at present. Likewise, any audiovisual materials hosted on our site are currently inaccessible to Deaf or hard of hearing visitors unless we embed captions. What might seem like digital openness to many can end up excluding some.

Just as the principle of digital hospitality requires us to rethink our digital presence, the principles of linguistic and cultural hospitality also require us to reconsider how we imagine Global Chaucers and its collaborators.  We began thinking that we would be creating an archive of data and texts that we would then analyze and disseminate.  Although we remain the project’s primary ambassadors, the active interest and participation of other scholars, translators, and enthusiasts means that we shouldn’t resist participants ready to take Global Chaucers in new directions. Not only does information want to be free, so do the voices and data assembled under the Global Chaucers rubric. We hope that the project becomes multi-faceted, with some of its aspect thriving without our direct involvement.

So what are some of the new directions that our UVa conversations helped reveal?

  • It’s time to rethink our initial parameters of “post-1945 translations and appropriations of The Canterbury Tales.” Our catalog now includes translations of and engagements with Troilus and Criseyde, The Parlement of Fowles, and Chaucerian lyrics; and the catalog spans works from as early as the sixteenth century.
  • Our catalog is diverse enough to justify bringing in colleagues with coding expertise, so that we can creating a database coding our collected information about the various translations—languages, translators, tales, dates, and source texts, for instance. That database will then be used to do more outwardly visible work, such as classroom-friendly mapping projects.
  • We need to determine the best way to archive the various forms of graphic, visual, and audiovisual media, including the possibility of a new infrastructure for such material. If Global Chaucers is to encourage an inclusive dialogue about Chaucer as well as more to provide more routes of access that allow us to discuss problematic aspects of his verse, then we need better ways to archive and present information.
  • We need to consider if its desirable to switch the Global Chaucers site into a maker space rather than a user space. If we decide to move in that direction, then we will need help to make the change.

Although we are not certain about the shape Global Chaucers will take, we are confident it will adhere to its initial values of digital, linguistic, and cultural hospitality despite the challenges those values might pose.  For these reasons, we were gratified to learn that our UVa colleagues shared not only our enthusiasm for Chaucer’s global reception but also our commitment to creating a global community.

Thank you Justin Greenlee, DeVan Ard, Zach Stone, Bruce Holsinger, Elizabeth Fowler, Anna Brickhouse, and the Scholars’ Lab staff for your gracious hospitality and for the opportunities to share our work and to learn from you.



Global Chaucers in UVA and DC


The Global Chaucers co-directors are currently in UVA! We’ll be appearing at the Scholars’ Lab on Thursday to discuss “Digital Hospitality” and the Medieval Colloquium on Friday for a workshop on “Linguistic and Cultural Hospitality.” More than ever, we are hoping this project can create a more empathetic, culturally aware, and interconnected world.

We the co-directors also proud to be taking part in an interdisciplinary symposium on Saturday organized by the GW Digital Humanities Institute at George Washington University (Washington, DC) on Saturday entitled “Global Chaucer and Shakespeare in a Digital World.” Visit the symposium website for full information [and note the informational flyer below]. The symposium features José Francisco Botelho (Brazilian translator of both Chaucer and Shakespeare) among many other exciting folks! The conference in DC is FREE and open to the public.

After the DC event, Botelho will continue on to Connecticut for a conversation about his Contos da Cantuária.


Botelho, Chaucer’s Brazilian Translator, in Connecticut 8 & 9 February 2017


I’m pleased to announce that my Canterbury Tales students and I will be hosting Francisco José Botelho, Brazil’s award-winning poet and translator in a conversation about his Contos da Cantuária.  Botelho is in the United States as a guest of the Global Chaucers Project, CCSU English Department, SCSU English Department, and the George Washington University Digital Humanities Institute.

Date: Wednesday, 8 February 2017

Time: 4:30pm to 6:00pm

Place: Marcus White Living Room, CCSU

We welcome anyone interested in Brazilian culture, medieval literature, translation studies, or fascinating conversation.

Refugee Tales: ebook available now!


Cover of Refugee Tales (forthcoming from Comma Press, 2016).

Refugee Tales is now available for purchase as an e-book (or pre-order a hard copy)!

This collection includes the contributions by Patience Agbabi (former Poet Laureate of Canterbury and author of Chaucerian remix Telling Tales), as well as other artists and storytellers from varied backgrounds. (We’ve mentioned Agbabi’s work throughout various blog posts, and you can read more about the “Refugee Tales” project here; see also my related posting on the global refugee crisis at In The Middle.)

Refugee Tales is a multi-voiced collection that conveys “the frighteningly common experiences of Europe’s new underclass – its refugees. … Presenting their accounts anonymously, as modern day counterparts to the pilgrims’ stories in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, this book offers rare, intimate glimpses into otherwise untold suffering” (read more on the Comma Press website).

I’ve already acquired the e-book and can already say that the poetry and stories in this book are at once beautiful, provocative, and moving.

Note all profits from this book go to the Gatwick Detainee Welfare Group and Kent Help for Refugees.

Note there are many events happening in July 2016 (before and throughout the New Chaucer Society Congress in London) relating to the Refugee Tales project; see event listing here (note the forum and various scheduled legs of the walk, a “reverse” pilgrimage along the route from Canterbury to Westminster).

Upcoming events of interest:

Friday, 8 July 2016: Presentations from Refugee Tales at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London. Ali Smith,”The Detainees Tale”; David Herd, “The Prologue;” and Patience Agbabi, “The Refugee’s Tale.” [Book tickets here – SOLD OUT as of 10 June]

Wednesday, 13 July 2016: Reading by Patience Agbabi coinciding with the New Chaucer Society Congress in London; she will deliver an interactive reading entitled “Herkne and Rede” drawing from Telling Tales that explores poetry performance as dynamic adaptation. [This is a public event. Scroll to the end of this schedule; more info will be forthcoming on this blog]

The Refugee Tales Walk

DSCF2129_lonewalkerTaking a cue from Chaucer’s band of pilgrims,  participants in Gatwick Detainees Welfare Group’s Refugee Tales Walk are midway through their 9-day walk on the North Downs Way from Dover to Crawley via Canterbury. Along the way, writers, musicians and other artists will share tales inspired by the migrants and refugees: The General Prologue, The Migrant’s Tale, The Chaplain’s Tale, The Unaccompanied Minor’s Tale, The Arriver’s Tale, The Lorry Driver’s Tale, The Visitor’s Tale, The Detainee’s Tale, The Interpreter’s Tale, The Appellant’s Tale, The Counsellor’s Tale, The Dependent’s Tale, The Friend’s Tale, The Deportee’s Tale, The Lawyer’s Tale, The Refuge’s Tale, The Ex-Detainee’s Tale, and a Reprise of the Tales.

Photos and journal entries provide the rest of us an opportunity to share in the events.

Thanks to Dan Kline for alerting us to this deeply moving project.

See also, the Times Higher Education article.

Whan That Aprille Day 2014

by Candace Barrington and Jonathan Hsy

#WhanThatAprille trending on twitter
Snapshots from twitter: #WhanThatAprilleDay is trending! The day has just begun, but participants around the world have already posted videos; images of books, texts, and cakes; and tweets in languages ancient and modern.

Happy April!

In a recent posting, the famous Chaucer blogger and tweeter (@LeVostreGC) called for “Whan That Aprille Daye”: an occasion for people around the world to perform, tweet, or otherwise “celebrate al the langages that have come bifor, and alle their joyes and sorrowes and richesse.” The mission is to “remynde folk of the beautye and grete lovelinesse of studyinge the wordes of the past.”

Follow #WhanThatAprilleDay hashtag on twitter and social media to join in on the fun.

Some excellent items of note that have already appeared online:

To join in this spirit of play, we are posting renditions of the opening lines of the General Prologue in diverse and sundry modern languages. Some are in prose, some in verse (free verse or rhyme). Those of you know the Middle English lines very well will certainly recognize many echoes in the Romance and Germanic languages.

Afrikaans (John Boje, 1989)

Wanneer Aprilmaand milde reënbuie bring
wat Maart se droogheid heeltemal deurdring
en elke aar met daardie vog bedek
wat kragtig bloome tot die lewe wek,
wanneer die westewind met soete geur
sy asem uitblaas op swak lote deur
die bos en hei, en die jong son gegaan
het tot de helfte van die Ram se baan,
en al die voëltjies opgeruimd uitsing
wat hele nagte met oë oop verbring
(dus prikkel die natuur hul handelswyse),
dang an mense graag op pelgrimsreise,
en swerwers hunker na die vreemde strande
van verre heiliges in vele lande.

Arabic (Majdī Wahbah Abd & Al-Ḥamīd Yūnis, 1983)

Screen Capture





Catalan (Marià Manent, 1955)

Quan l’abril amb les pluges ve que alleuja
l’eixut del març, que penetrà a la rel,
i banya cada vena aquella limfa
que amb la seva virtut farà brotar la flor;
quan el Zèfir suau, amb la dolça alenada,
fa sortir en tots els boscos i brugueres
les tendres fulles, i el Sol, jove encara,
es troba a mig camí de Capricorni,
i ocells menuts fan una melodia
dormint tota la nit amb ulls oberts
(així els dóna coratge la Natura),
la gent ja té desig de romiatges
i busquen els romeus camins estranys
cap a temples famosos, per llunyedanes terres;
i assenyaladament, des dels confins de tots
els comtats d’Anglaterra, a Canterbury acuden
cercant el màrtir sant i beneït
que els donà ajut en temps de malatia.

Mandarin Chinese (Fang Chong, 1983)

[for more information, see this previous blog posting]

General Prologue in Mandarin Chinese (Chong, 1983).

Danish (A. Hansen, 1901)

[see this previous posting for more on Danish translations]

Naar i April de friske Byger trænge
Ned i den tørre Muld paa mark og Enge
Og alle Rødder bade sig i Regn
Og skyde Blomster frem som Livsenstegn,
Naar Zefyr med sit friske, milde Pust
Hen over Krat og Hede lunt har sust.

French (Louis Kazamian, 1908, repr. 1942)

Quand Avril de ses averses douces
a percé la sécheresse de Mars jusqu’à la racine,
et baigné chaque veine de cette liqueur
par la vertu de qui est engendrée la fleur;
quand Zéphyr aussi de sa douce haleine
a ranimé dans chaque bocage et bruyère
les tendres pousses, et que le jeune soleil
a dans le Bélier parcouru sa demi-course;
et quand les petits oiseaux font mélodie,
qui dorment toute la nuit l’œil ouvert,
(tant Nature les aiguillonne dans leur cœur),
alors ont les gens désir d’aller en pèlerinage,
et les paumiersde gagner les rivages étrangers,
allant aux lointains sanctuaires, connus en divers pays;
et spécialement, du fond de tous les comtés
de l’Angleterre, vers Canterbury ils se dirigent,
pour chercher le saint et bienheureux martyr
qui leur a donné aide, quand ils étaient malades.

Frisian (Klaas Bruinsma, 2013)

Wannear’t april mei al syn swiete buien
oant yn ’e woartel poarre ’t maartske druien,
en alle ieren baaid’ yn sok in sop,
waans krêft it blomte wer ta libben rôp.
en bywannear’t ek Zéfirus wer aaide
mei swiete amm’ yn alle hôf en heide
de teare leaten, en de jonge sinne
heale baan rûn hat troch Aries hinne
en lytse fûgels melodijen meitsje
dy’t nachts wol sliepe, mar mei d’ eagen weitsje
(sa priket de natoer har yn ’e herten),
dan langet folk in beafeart yn te setten,
en pylgers sykje fiere, frjemde strannen
om hilligen bekend yn folle lannen;
om dan foaral út eltse krit’ en hernen
fan Ingelân nei Kenterboarch te tsjen en
de hill’ge, sill’ge martler op te sykjen,
dy’t harren holpen hat yn harren sykten.

German (Martin Lehnert, 1962)

Wenn milder Regen, den April uns schenkt,
Des Märzes Dürre bis zur Wurzel tränkt,
In alle Poren süßen Saft ergießt,
Durch dessen Wunderkraft die Blume sprießt;
Wenn, durch des Zephyrs süßen Hauch geweckt,
Sich Wald und Feld mit zartem Grün bedeckt;
Wenn in dem Widder halb den Lauf vollzogen,
Die junge Sonne hat am Himmelsbogen;
Wenn Melodieen kleine Vögel singen,
Die offnen Augs die ganze Nacht verbringen,
Weil sie Natur so übermüthig macht: –
Dann ist auf Wallfahrt Jedermann bedacht,
Und Pilger ziehn nach manchem fremden Strande
Zu fernen Heil’gen, die berühmt im Lande;
In England aber scheint von allen Enden
Nach Canterbury sich ihr Zug zu wenden,
Dem heil’gen Hülfespender aller Kranken,
Dem segensvollen Märtyrer zu danken.

Japanese (Masui Michio, 1995; repr. 2012)

General Prologue in Japanese (Masui 2012)

Korean (Dongil Lee, 2007)












Brazilian Portuguese (José Francisco Botelho, 2013)

[See this preview and previous blog posting]

Quando o chuvoso abril em doce aragem
Desfez março e a secura da estiagem,
Banhando toda a terra no licor
Que encorpa o caule e redesperta a flor,
E Zéfiro, num sopro adociacado,
Reverdeceu os montes, bosques, prados,
E o jovem so, em seu trajeto antigo,
Já passou do Carneiro do Zodíaco,
E melodiam pássaros despertos,
Que à noite doormen de olhos bem abertos,
Conforme a Natureza determina
–É que o tempo chegou das romarias.

Turkish (Nazmi Ağıl, 1994)

Nisan that yağmurlarıyla gelip
Kırınca Marttan kalan kuraği ve delip
Toprağı köklere işleyince, kudretiyle
Çiçekler açtıran bereketli şerbetiyle
Yıkayınca en ince damarları,
Zephirus da dolaşarak kırları, bayırları
Soluyunca can katan ılık,
Tatlı nefesini körpecik
Filizlere, toy güneş yarı edince
Koç burcunkaki devrini, bütün gece
Uyumayıp börtü böcek
Şarkılar söyleyince (tabiat dürtükleyerek
Uyanık tutar onları) işte o dem,
Hacca gitmeye büyük bir özlem
Duyar insanlar.

P.S. Follow @JonathanHsy on twitter; he’ll tweeting and retweeting throughout the day!